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There are several forms of diabetes that can be identified. Types of diabetes include type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile. These many forms of diabetes have varied etiologies, prevalence, prognoses, and therapies. These numerous types of diabetes share many of the same fundamental symptoms. The less prevalent type, type 1 diabetes, or juvenile diabetes makes for 5% of all cases of diabetes (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). The main distinction between this kind of diabetes and others is the destruction of pancreatic cells (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). The production of insulin, which is eventually released into the bloodstream, depends on these cells (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). A person with type 1 diabetes needs to take insulin shots to survive because the body ceases producing insulin as a result of the death of the pancreatic cells. Although it can happen at any age, this kind of diabetes is more frequently observed in children or young people (Joslin Diabetes Center, 2021).

Moving forward, type 2 diabetes accounts for 90%–95% of occurrences of the disease and is the most common type (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Although the body does create insulin in type 2 diabetes, the cells do not react to it as they normally would (Joslin Diabetes Center, 2021). The pancreas should produce more insulin as a result of this condition, which is known as insulin resistance, but type 2 diabetes prevents this from happening (Joslin Diabetes Center, 2021). People over the age of 40 who have risk factors like obesity, a family history, and other health issues are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (Joslin Diabetes Center, 2021).

One type of diabetes that only affects pregnant women is gestational diabetes. These women had no history of diabetes before getting pregnant. Only in the middle of pregnancy does this kind of diabetes begin (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). A good, balanced diet and consistent exercise are frequently effective ways to manage gestational diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this form of diabetes can cause issues such as an extra-large baby, c-sections, high blood pressure, and low blood sugar.

Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 diabetes has been chosen as the focus of this article so that I can go into further detail and cover some of the medications that are used to treat the condition, dietary recommendations, and the long- and short-term effects on patients. As was previously explained, people with type 2 diabetes can make insulin, but their cells do not utilize it properly. As a result, a wide range of oral and injectable medications are available for the treatment of this type of diabetes (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2021). Metformin is one of the oral medications that can be used to treat this kind of diabetes. Metformin is an anti-diabetic medication that can be administered alone or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs. 500 mg twice daily or 1000 mg once daily are the normal dosages.   Metformin is a member of the biguanide medicine class and aids in improving how quickly the body reacts to the hormone insulin, which the body naturally produces to help regulate blood sugar levels. There are several different dosages of metformin, including liquid, pill, and extended release.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, July 14). Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes-gestational.html.

Joslin Diabetes Center. (2021). The Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2. Joslin Diabetes Center. https://www.joslin.org/patient-care/diabetes-education/diabetes-learningcenter/difference-between-type-1-and-type-2. MedlinePlus. (2020). Metformin:

MedlinePlus Drug Information. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a696005.html.